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Editorial Reviews. Review. "Rabow-Edling undertakes an important and needed task, namely Slavophile Thought and the Politics of Cultural Nationalism (SUNY series in National . Using cultural nationalism as a tool for understanding Slavophile thinking, she argues that a Russian national identity was not shaped in.
Table of contents
Addressed to the Pope, the Declaration spoke of the Scottish nation and urged the Pope to disregard the English claim on Scotland, which the Pope subsequently did. For the most part, however, a genuine sense of national identity had yet to develop among the peoples living in each of these European states. Although religious influence on political affairs would continue to shape history, governments would now be based more on a secular rather than religious rule. In , a half—century after the Treaty of Westphalia, English physician John Locke — published his "Second Treatise on Government," further developing English philosopher Thomas Hobbes ' — " social contract theory" to identify civil government as resting on the consent of the governed.
Locke's writings are now seen by many as having sparked the "Age of Enlightenment" in Europe—a period in history when the rights of individuals were enumerated and exalted and the concept of government based on the will of the people took hold. Interest in democratic self—governance and political self—determination grew among European and American philosophers and ordinary citizens alike. France, one of the most powerful European countries at the time, underwent profound political changes in On July 14 an angry mob stormed the Bastille Prison in Paris, sparking the French Revolution with the goal of achieving "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" for all citizens living in France.
The growth of a "bourgeois" middle class had led to demands by commoners for a greater say in their governance, which up to then had been controlled mainly by the. October 16, saw the execution by guillotine of Queen Marie Antoinette and King Louis XIV of France, ending royal rule in France and paving the way for an attempt at democratic rule. However, the repression and violence visited upon those unwilling to subscribe to the new method of government was so enormous that the country fell back into disarray under the " Reign of Terror " of the Jacobins, who wished to instill an excessive degree of control and order on French society and to eliminate all who they deemed enemies.
A decade later, Napoleon Bonaparte, a general in the French army, led the French people on an expansive campaign to conquer Europe. Witnessing the transformation of European states away from monarchical rule, German theologian Johann Gottfried Herder — published his Outline of a Philosophy of a History of Man , a set of theories developed by Herder between and , which detailed his views on the proper identity of nations and on the growth of nationalism. In this document and others he wrote over the next two decades, Herder promoted the idea that true nations are comprised of persons who share a common ancestry and linguistic heritage, along with common cultural and religious traits.
His idea of "romantic nationalism" was one of the earliest theoretical portraits of nationalism as stemming from the desires of language communities to shape their own destinies and to create their own territorial states. Johann Gottfried Herder was one of the earliest of the European writers on nationalism. Herder's concept of nationalism focused on the cultural side of nation formation, with ethnicity figuring much more significantly in the development of nationhood than the more "civic" aspects featured by later theorists.
Barnard described Herder's life and the development of his nationalist vision, noting that Herder's conception of nationalism emerged during the German Romantic period that began in the eighteenth century. At that time, the idea of a German national identity grew in popularity across the feudal states that eventually would be united as the German Confederation of and later, in , as the German Empire. Herder began his formal academic studies in the field of medicine but later switched to theology.
Listening to lectures of the famous philosopher Emanuel Kant during his studies from —64, Herder became particularly interested in Kant's geography lectures on the relationships among "meteorological, physical, and human factors. In Herder moved to Riga in the Russian Empire, where he preached and taught for five years. In Herder was ordained a minister, served in two churches in Riga, and taught in the Cathedral School there.
Increasingly well known and respected as a writer, Herder published his first book, Uber die neuere deutsche Litteratur.
Fragmente Excerpts from Recent German Literature at age twenty—three. In Herder moved to France, keeping a diary of his voyage by sea, which was published after his death and revealed his hopes of becoming a world— famous writer and a significant political actor. Herder apparently wished to reform the Russian education system and to devise a new constitution for Russia.
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After arriving in France, Herder increasingly saw himself as German and felt depressed by the decay of French political and social life in the decades preceding the French Revolution. In Herder was invited to tutor the son of the Prince of Holstein back in Prussia and to travel with his young student to Italy. Disenchanted by life in the French capital and attracted by this new offer, Herder quickly left Paris and moved to Eutin, Holstein's capital city, in March to begin tutoring.
On the way to Italy with the prince's son, Herder stopped in Hamburg and Darmstadt, where he met the woman he later would marry, Caroline Flachsland. However, apparently feeling humiliated by how he was treated as a tutor, Herder quit his job after reaching Strasbourg with the prince's son in July There, Herder sought treatment at the Strasbourg Faculty of Medicine for an eye problem that had afflicted him since childhood.
While in Strasbourg, Herder started up a lifelong friendship with the German poet Goethe, leading to his eventual move to Weimar, where Goethe was minister of the court of Duke Karl August. Herder came to Weimar, where he spent a quarter of a century, dying there on December 18, Despite his personal charisma and ability to attract others to take part in stimulating intellectual discussions and correspondence with him, Herder became increasingly isolated in his work and views and dissatisfied with life as he aged.
Nonetheless, he reportedly was a keen observer of his surroundings and enjoyed being of service to others. Herder's discontent with the social and political life of his times had much to do with the lack of democratic practices in eighteenth century German society. Concerned with social justice, Herder objected to the exclusionary nature of German hereditary politics, nobility, and feudal structures, to the arbitrariness of political tyrants, and to the continual warfare of nations that sought to dominate each other.
He was especially opposed to slavery and colonialism. Religiously taught and inspired, Herder drew from the Bible, secular humanist principles, and the humanitarian writings and philosophy of the Renaissance and the European Enlightenment periods in developing his theory of nationalism. He found the Hebrew people particularly interesting, for he viewed them, according to Barnard, as the "oldest example of a Volk [people] with a developed national consciousness and of an 'organic' community in which socio—political organization grew naturally out of the socioeconomic functions of its members.
The character of a Volk , in Herder's mind, was shaped in particular by language, which brought people together into a community and allowed them to express their innermost spiritual qualities in a natural way. Herder saw language and ethnicity as needing to correspond to a political, territorial state.
Consequently, mixtures of ethnic communities living in the same territorial region would not form as vital or cohesive a state as a single language community would. In some ways, Herder's conception of nationalism overlaps with "civic nationalism. However, in his theory of "linguistic nationalism," Herder assumed that when a state coincided with an ethnic community, legislation would not need to be coercive, since laws would flow naturally from the social awareness of the Volk.
While he valued the creation of individual states, each corresponding to a specific Volk , Herder also viewed the respect of different peoples for each other and for international cooperation as extremely important. Thus, the right of one particular ethnic community to self—determination could be exercised only if self—governance did not prevent another Volk from governing themselves.
Rather than advocating a formal world government structure, however, Herder believed international cooperation could best be achieved through looser associations of nations where mutual interests would be advanced by peaceful cooperation. Historical events in Europe just after Herder's death created new boundaries for major European states and inspired further thought among political philosophers on the nature of the nation and the phenomenon of nationalism. Between and , the French army under the leadership of Napoleon defeated Prussia.click
During these same years German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte — delivered a series of lectures, "Addresses to the German Nation," advancing the idea that common "civic" values are the basis for nations; that is, a liberal citizenry is fundamentally based on shared respect for individual freedoms and liberties and that government is created of, by, and for those governed. Having grown ever more dictatorial and autocratic, Napoleon's rule eventually came to an end.
Crowning himself Emperor of France, Napoleon eventually met his downfall at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium in , where the Prussian army halted Napoleon's murderous, self— annihilating campaign. In the same year, the German Confederation was formed, linking thirty—nine German feudal states thirty—five monarchies and four free cities , a significant step toward the unification of Germany to take place in under King Wilhelm I — Throughout the nineteenth century, dramatic political changes continued to occur in Europe, sparked by the growing number, size, and economic importance of capitalist industries and the appearance of a solid middle class.
Political and economic discontent grew at mid—century, especially among the lower— level aristocrats and the bourgeoisie —the newly appearing middle class consisting largely of businessman and businesswomen—who saw their interests inadequately represented in the governing structures of Europe. In economic problems, discontent by the middle class over their lack of opportunity for political participation, and growing nationalist movements led to revolutionary attempts to establish a new political order.
To a substantial measure, the growing influence of Karl Marx — and Friedrich Engels ' — writings on socialism and communism as alternatives to capitalism inspired political insurgencies and economic riots in many European cities that year.
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Though the revolts failed to establish more liberal, socialist governments, nationalist movements gained momentum throughout Europe from the tumultuous events of that year. Following the French expulsion of Austrians from power in Northern Italy by and the uniting of southern Italian city—states under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi — , Italy became a single kingdom in under Victor Emmanuel II — , acclaimed by popular vote. The unification of Prussia and the thirty—nine German states and cities of the German Confederation culminated the campaign to unify Germany into a single state by the military conquests of Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of Prussia.
Nation building in Europe was at a high point. A decade later, on March 11, , French philosopher Ernest Renan — lectured on " Qu'est—ce qu'une nation? His lecture, published in Paris by Calmann—Levy later that year, explored questions of the essence of national identity and national unification movements and marked out new theoretical territory in developing a civic conception of nationalism. Around this time, concepts of national identity became ever more exclusive, with the criteria for supposed membership in national groups growing increasingly specific and focused on culture and "race.
In terms of political party activity, nationalism was becoming an increasingly dangerous phenomenon by the s, especially for those deemed unworthy of inclusion as members of the nation. The growth of anti—immigrant parties such as the "Know—Nothing Party" in the United States and the Dreyfus Affair of the s in France—a case of anti—Semitic action directed against Captain Alfred Dreyfus — , a French general staff officer who was convicted of treason despite insubstantial evidence—marked the dangerous turn nationalism was taking in both Europe and America.
For the African continent, the most significant event of the nineteenth century arguably was the —85 Conference of Berlin, involving the heads of several European states, among them France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, and Spain. At this series of meetings, the participating European countries established their "rights" to stake out colonial claims and extend their political and economic control in Africa.
Only Liberia, colonized by freed American and Caribbean slaves beginning in and made independent in , and Ethiopia, historically an independent kingdom except under Mussolini's Italian occupation from to , escaped the ravages of the European imperialists in the decades that followed the Berlin Conference.
What came to be known as the "Scramble for Africa" had begun, with dire consequences for the indigenous nations across the African continent, from the Arab Maghreb in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south. At the close of the nineteenth century, an international conference in Europe offered the promise of a future world where national sovereignty would be better respected and nations would cooperate in peace.